Whichever branch of the family being followed it would be useful for reference to print out the colour coded diagram below showing descent. The families then shown on this page were only involved for short periods in helping out at the family coffee (and eating) shop in Lambeth. For those families living at no.35 Commercial Rd over a longer period see the three pages on the coffee shop, the first telling William Cope's story, the second that of Henry George and the third Henry George junior (Harry). Follow the links for your own family line if applicable.
As several children are known to have died
young, individual families are shown by colour:
row 2 - William & Sarah's ten children
row 3 - their 4 surviving children with their marriages
row 4 - next generation of those (known) surviving children
of Lambeth, SRY
of Cockpole, BRK
|Mary Ann Eliza
|Sarah m.1848 .
Sarah Alicia Arrowsmith
|Mary Ann Eliza m. Leonard
m. John Lack Dec Q 1871
|Henry George 1859
Elizabeth Caroline 1862
Francis Wm Phipps 1865
Ada Beatrice 1867
William Samuel 1870
Ada L. 1865
Henry C. 1869
Clara M. 1872
Louisa M. 1874
Alice B. 1876
Emma E. 1879
|(1) Leonard Goodson d.
Sep Q 1871 Lambeth
Leonard Grant Goodson (1860-1861)
Laura Susan Goodson 1861-aft 1911
Leonard Cope Goodson 1863
Ellen Goodson 1865-aft.1901
(2) John Lack d. Sep Q 1904 Southwark
Frederick Lack 1873
Charles Lack 1877
Origins of the
William's parents were William and Jane and he was probably the 3rd of 4 children: There are no records online before 1800 to back this up but William's birth in 1797 and christening in 1798 (at St George's Southwark) was recorded by the family. Suggestions that any of the children listed below were baptised at St Mary's Lambeth have been removed as inaccurate - the church was only opened in 1798 so they would also have been baptised at St George's, then the only 'local' parish church for Lambeth.
Nothing is known of these other children but perhaps Samuel Cope who married Zilpah Clarke on 4 May 1817 at St George's was also a member of this family. Samuel and Zilpah had 7 children, all but one of whose names recur also in William's family, but not listed here to avoid confusion as they are not known to have played any part in the events that follow. (Details on request)
During his life William is known to have attended at least four churches - St Mary's, St John's and St Andrew's, Lambeth, and Christchurch Southwark - none built when he was born, but all within walking distance by the end of his life. Notes on these churches - and other features of the area - can be found on the Sources page. The story of the Cope family coffee shop begins in the early years of the nineteenth century. In 1814 one of his early experiences which he used to tell his grandchildren about was the great freeze-up of the River Thames and the last Frost Fair held on it.
About 1822 William married Sarah Phipps, then aged about 19. The place and date of the marriage is so far not known. Sarah came from the quiet hamlet of Cockpole Green in Berkshire, midway between Henley and Maidenhead. She was however christened at the church of St Mary the Virgin in Hurley on 3 Jul 1803 as Cockpole Green was too small to have its own church. It was a long way from Lambeth so probably Sarah herself had found work in London.
The rest of this page below deals with those families, either not involved
with running the coffee shop, or, as in the case of Sarah and Mary Ann, helping
or living there only for a very short time as an adult, with details of their
children and some grandchildren.
'Harry' in the links below was the son of Henry George senr but named here as 'Harry' as the family knew him, to save confusing the two of them.
|Coffee shop2 Henry George (1)||
Sarah Cope married Archibald Brown on 24 Apr 1848 at St Bride's,
Fleet St, London. Archibald is described as a 'mill sawyer' - perhaps he met
William Cope first - they at least had their occupations in common. Sarah and
Archibald had 8 children. Some of their records are hard to pinpoint as the
surname is so common.
There is a great deal of uncertainty about most aspects of their lives, Brown being such a common name joined to other very common first names, so frequently dozens of possible records exist. The only reliable - or often not so reliable - source is the census. All the children were born in Lambeth except Jane and Caroline who were born in Shoreditch (Hoxton) Middlesex, north of the City of London.
With a name as common as 'Brown', even with a first name Archibald there are quite a number of duplicates, most of whom could be the relevant person! The distinction between known facts and suggestions should be fairly obvious, but as in all cases of recording events it is advisable to recheck sources etc!
1. Sarah (Margaret?) Brown,
born in the Dec Q 1848 (Free BMD) is listed in their family on the 1861 census
in Shoreditch, MIddlesex, as Sarah W. Brown (on FindMyPast) aged 12. This much
is sure, but only a Sarah Margaret has been found as a match of about the right
age. The 'W' could in fact be an 'M' but is not quite obvious enough to ask
for a correction as the enumerator has more than one 'flourish' in his style
for these letters. Oddly she is also entered again as living with her grandfather,
William Cope, who lists her as his granddaughter and aged 13, whereas her parents
state correctly that she is 12. (She is quite definitely the same person!)
Possibly she was helping in the coffee shop and staying there during the week
then back home at weekends - she could even be due to arrive - or return home
- on the Sunday evening of the census itself.
It was a common pattern for young people to begin their working life in the home of a relative - at about the age of ten right into the 20th century. For example in 1881 the Census shows a girl of eleven living in as a servant in the coffee shop. But for nearly all the time the coffee shop was in existence there were relatives involved in helping, and often living there too.
A double entry on the census is by no means unique, probably for similar reasons). By the next census young Sarah could have been married or have died - in either case she would be very difficult to find in either type of record where no age is given. This is the last time she can be identified on any records - she could have married or died - at least five Sarah Browns died in the first half of the sixties, too many to check.
After her husband died Sarah, mother of Sarah Margaret, moved back to Commercial Rd to be near her family at no.31, and perhaps also able to help her father out in the coffee shop with Archibald junior working as a labourer and young William as an errand boy.. This could also be about the time the remaining Cope family moved round the corner to Commercial Road from the original 'eating house' in Cornwall Road. Sarah senior herself moved in the opposite direction by 1881 - round the corner, back to Cornwall Rd. where she was born, but to no.79, remaining there till the end of her life, some time after 1891. (Luckily young Archibald was given in the 1881 census with the inital 'D' for his second name (Douglas) which made him easy to find.)
2. Mary Ann Esther Brown was born in the Sep Q 1850,. listed simply as Mary Ann at first but by 1871 had changed to just 'Esther' - fortunately there is no duplicate for her full name at birth and the 1851 census lists her as Mary A.E.Brown. M.A.Esther was just 20 and still 'at home', working as a tiemaker in 1871. No record of her has yet been found later - and if she reverted to just 'Mary Ann' there are far too many to investigate.
3. Elizabeth Brown appears first in 1861 aged 9 and living with her parents in Shoreditch. By 1871, now 19, she is named as Elizabeth Hill, obviously married fairly recently, but with no husband present. His name, William Hill, only appears once, in the next census of 1881 when they were living together in Mile End. No record of this marriage has been found, either in Surrey (Lambeth/Southwark) or anywhere, or by entering variants like 'Hall' nor do they appear to have had any children - the name is too common to investigate. Perhaps they had what is usually called a 'common law marriage' though it had (and has) no status in law.
Presumably it was the same William, a railway plate layer ( perhaps frequently lodging away from home which would explain his absence) who died, aged 44, in the Mar Q of 1890 in Mile End. Elizabeth (as 'Elizabeth Hill' and a 'widow') was still living there, working as a laundress, one of the 'lowest' of occupations in 1891. She was probably in no position to move anywhere. This census has a 'J' after her name but there is no other evidence that she really had a 2nd name. A search of Lambeth produced one matching result for a death of an Elizabeth Hill, Dec Q 1930, which is possible but not proved.
4. Archibald Brown junior was working as a coal porter in 1881 and 1891, still living with his widowed mother and unmarried. After that he is hard to find and it doesn't seem very likely that someone of his name and age (46) should have died in Durham in the Jun Q 1899 except for a possible association with coal. [Vol 10a p410]. Or perhaps he emigrated.....? ('Archibald Brown' was a surprisingly common name!)
5. William Brown unfortunately had another very common name but if the birth year is correct at the census there is only one 'candidate' who is incorrect as he had a brother Arthur and the William being researched had no such brother. If a wider age range is used in case the wrong age was given, there is no clue as to which of several William Browns he might be or even none!
6. Jane Brown was born in 1860 but the only record found in Hoxton, Shoreditch is for the Dec Q which would be wrong if the census was accurate and she was then 9 months old. An age of 9 months puts her birth in the Sep Q 1860 for which there are two possible records (not counting unlikely ones in more distant parts of England) One was in the Strand area (Vol 1b p.442) and the other in St Pancras (Vol 1b p.105), yet her birthplace is shown as Hoxton. This would make her 7 months old which is an understandable mistake if someone other than the mother gave the information to the enumerator. On balance the last suggestion is the most likely. (Shoreditch Vol 1c p.133) This kind of problem turns up quite frequently and without more information there is not much point in trying to prove which is correct (if any of them!)
7. Caroline Brown, born in Hoxton in 1863 was a book folder by 1881. - there were plenty of printers in the immediate vicinity of 79 Cornwall Rd where she was still living in 1881. After that she 'disappears', so she could have married or died - or perhaps even emigrated.
8. Elizabeth Brown, born abt Nov 1870 (5 months old at the census) is listed as a 'daughter' but there was already an Elizabeth in the Brown family, and had she been the daughter of Elizabeth (Brown) and William Hill she would surely have been called 'Hill', not Brown. Sarah is listed as a widow in the 1871 census, and as aged 47 so was quite old to be a mother. On balance it seems very likely that Elizabeth was actually daughter of Mary Ann Esther, Sarah's 2nd daughter, especially as Archibald senior had probably died either in 1863 or 1865 (there are 2 records). There is just one such birth in the St Saviour District, (given variously as Christchurch or St Saviour's, basically the same district, St Saviour's including Christchurch) in the Dec Q 1870, for an Elizabeth Charlotte Brown (Vol.1d p.150), but this 'Elizabeth C.' born in the right area but aged 4 mths, a month younger and living with both parents. is not a match The identity of this Elizabeth in Sarah's family therefore remains a mystery without a birth certificate. An Elizabeth C. Brown - which is probably her as no 'rival' has ben found - died in the Sep Q 1876 in the Christchurch area of Southwark aged about 5.
Edwin Cope (1834-1891) was still living at home, that is, 35 Commercial Road, when he married Louisa Colwell (1838-1884) who was living round the corner in Duke St, now renamed Duchy St, the third main one parallel to Waterloo Road after Cornwall Road and Prince's Street (renamed Coin St) This was on June 27th 1858 at the Church of St Mary in Lambeth.
A brief glance at a trade directory for Lambeth reveals such varied occupations as tripe dressers, potato salesmen, artificial florists and cowkeepers. Edwin was a farrier, a shoeing-smith. There were stables everywhere and hundreds of horses, ponies and donkeys all needing to be well-shod on the cobbled streets, harnesses to be made or mended, perhaps their hair to be cut close or their tails docked even if, as was so often the case, they were not treated kindly by their masters.
The newly married couple moved into 17 Broadwall, between then and 1871. Their first 5 children were born in Lambeth , at 17 Broadwall, and the rest still in the parish of Christchurch but presumably at the same address as they don't appear to have moved in that time.
Another move between 1881 and 1891 took Edwin and Louisa to 5a Boundary Row, off Blackfriars Rd.on the other side of the railway. They were now just over the border in Southwark, the back of their property actually being on the boundary, as clearly shown on the Ordnance Survey large-scale map of 1872. This was in the Christchurch ward. The opposite side of the road was completely taken over by a printing works, where perhaps the two girls who were stationer's asistants could have worked.
Charles Cope lived in Frances St, long since swallowed up by the expansion of Waterloo station.After his marriage to Sarah Fowler. It met Waterloo Road directly opposite St John the Evangelist's.
William Cope married Sarah's sister Ellen.After the deaths of the two wives Charles and William shared a house with William's daughter Jessie acting as housekeeper.
With many thanks to my cousin Joan for much of this information, especially the exact dates.
More details are available on request for the descendants from the marriages in this family. As far as is known neither Edwin senr nor any of his children had any part in the coffee house arrangements so do not appear on those pages, though they probably continued to visit for a few years.
Mary Ann Eliza Cope was born at 63 Cornwall Rd, Lambeth in 1837, which was then an 'eating house' presumably run by her mother Sarah though the census gives her father the title of 'eating house keeper'. Women at that time owned nothing of their own, not even the clothes they wore, and in law no rights over their own children. She was the 8th in the family though by then only four of her siblings were still alive.. Lambeth was notorious for a long time for its high death rate and the frequency of its outbreaks of cholera, not surprising since the main source of their water was the R.Thames which acted as an open sewer and drew drinking water from the river to its roadside pumps. Lambeth was also a low-lying boggy area rapidly being encroached upon by new buildings which soon filled up with whole families often sharing one room. By 1851, still at 63 Cornwall Rd William (or Sarah) had found it necessary to employ a servant. then in the 1850s they all moved onto Commercial Rd (now Upper Ground St).which runs across the northern end of Cornwall Rd. [For more details of the 'coffee house' see ' coffee1' ]
The Copes were fortunate in having the use of a house, and no doubt a larger one. to themselves when they moved into Commercial Rd and Mary Ann was perhaps still involved with her mother in the making of the pies etc served every day. But it was not all work as there was plenty of entertainment close by in the theatres and gardens and she may have moved lsewhere by the time she met Leonard Goodson who was then a hat porter lodging in 1851 on Broad Way in the parish of St Ann, Blackfriars. Then on 17 Jun 1860, Mary Ann and Leonard (b. Little Hadham, Herts, 21 May 1832)were married at St Bartholomew the Great's.. By 1861 as the census tells us they were living at 110 Brook St Lambeth with their first child, Leonard Grant Goodson who was 7 months old and born in Lambeth so they may have rented the house, or room, or rooms in Brook St from the time of their marriage.
It's not entirely clear where they lived for the next few years though it may have been Broadwall. On one census the children are given as all born in 'Southwark' but their birth records appear among those for Lambeth. This could simply be due to changes in the boundaries for the registration offices where the address is close to the boundary as in the case of Broadwall. Where the record was stored is the important source below. No.4 Broadwll was not far from where their uncle Edwin Cope lived at no.17 Boadwall, and within reasonable walking distance of the coffee shop.
1. Leonard Grant Goodson, b. Dec Q 1860 [Free BMD Lambeth Vol 1d p.301], d. Jun Q 1861 [Lambeth Vol 1d, p.225]
2. *Laura Susan Goodson b. Jun Q 1862 [Free BMD Lambeth Vol 1d p.247], m. George Henry Futcher Dec Q 1886 in Lambeth, (8 children but only 4 survived to 1911)
3. Leonard Cope Goodson b. Sep Q 1863 at 4 Broadwall, Lambeth m. Eliza Coombes Powers Sep Q 1887 at St Saviour, Southwark [Lambeth Vol 1d p.137] 3 children
4. Ellen Goodson b. Sep Q 1865 Lambeth;
1.Leonard Grant Goodson died in 1861 aged one.
It could have been in the late 1860s that the two girls, Laura and Ellen left home to became 'general domestic servants'.
2. Laura Susan Goodson was at the coffee shop in 1861 but by 1871 aged about 19, was a general domestic servant working for mother and daughter, both called Rosa Barnett who were dancing teachers at 27 Belgrave Rd, Marylebone, a house with a room perhaps large enough for the lessons, though Laura would have had little time for such dancing herself, though there might be a little scope for occasional dancing in a different establishment! (Up at 5 am to light the fires, before doing all the cleaning and polishing jobs around the house). She married a George Henry Futcher, a deal (wood) porter in the Dec Q 1882 in Southwark and they had 8 children, though only four survived to 1911 which accounts for the large gap before Laura was born and that between Frederick and Ernest in the known family:
i.Laura Futcher b. 1888, m. John Key in 1911
ii. Frederick Futcher b. 1890 who went into the Navy
iii. Ernest Futcher b.1900
iv. Herbert Futcher b. 1901.
3. Leonard Cope Goodson
In 1887 he married Eliza Coombes Powers b. Bermondsey 1864, and they had 3 children in rapid succession, In 1891 he was listed as a waiter..
i. May (or Mary) Eliza Goodson b.1888,
ii Margaret Mary A Goodson b.1889
iii Leonard George Goodson 1891 - 1892
His widow, Eliza, married again in the Mar Q 1895, to Alfred Henry Hall, a printing machine manager who lived in Tottenham, but it was a short marriage without children and she died in the following Dec Q.
Alfred Henry Hall - known as Henry - remarried, to a Gertrude Eames and went on to have a further three children by 1900 who were not of course related to the Cope family.
.Leonard Cope Goodson died at the age of 30 in 1893.
4. Ellen Goodson was a housemaid in St Pancras in 1881, in a well-to-do and all female household with a resident cook at 119 Albany St, St Pancras. By 1891 she had moved on to the Spiers & Pond Railway Station Hotel, Gloucester Road, Kensington, (quite a famous hotel now) one of four general domestic servants, alongside six bar attendants and a cook. However, by 1893 Ellen's daughter Nellie (Ellen) was born (father unknown) and she moved back to Southwark to live with her mother and John Lack. She was still with them in 1901 and never married, but after her mother's death in 1909 she moved again, with her stepbrother George Lack, now 62, this time to Toulmin St but still in Southwark, where she is listed as Head, and as an office cleaner while Nellie, 17, was working as a fancy cardboard box maker. They had three rooms (one would have been the 'kitchen') sharing the house with two other families, perhaps one on each floor, in which case they would have been in the middle.
The hotel on Gloucester Rd could be the one now known as Bailey's, a restored Victorian building, which is said to be a Spiers and Pond hotel. Spiers and Pond were two Englishmen who met in Australia and decided that there was a niche waiting in the market for railway hotels that could serve far better food than that generally offered at the time.
It was after the birth of Ellen that disaster struck the Cope and Goodson families.
Firstly on 27 Apr 1866 Sarah, nee Phipps, William's wife and Mary Ann's mother, then aged 63, died. The 1871 census finds Mary Ann and Leonard back in the coffee shop with their remaining 3 children - perhaps they had moved in when Mary Ann's mother was ill or when she died.
By 1871 the Goodson family were all living over the coffee shop with Mary's father, William Cope. That area of London was famous for its hat-making and people from all over London came there to buy their hats. It is not clear whether Leonard senior was involved in making or selling them. The felting and steaming and blocking, always in a damp atmosphere, were hard and unpleasant tasks.
Then just weeks or a couple of months only after that census Leonard, Mary Ann's husband also died. By this time William was employing two servants but it would still have been hard for Mary Ann with 3 children under ten. In the Dec Q 1871 that eventful year concluded in Whitechapel with the second marriage of Mary Ann, this time to John Lack, variously a coal porter or coal weigher born in Southwark on 19 Oct 1816, (Perhaps he was delivering to the coffee shop?) This rather hasty re-marriage only weeks after Leonard's death was probably because Mary had been left with three surviving children, Laura now about 10, Leonard 8, and Ellen 6 and presumably no means of support. Leonard remained living at home and was still there in 1881, being listed on that census as Leonard Lack.
John Lack sen'r was a coal porter and weigher who had been married before, to a Mary (surname unknown).
Mayhew's describes the occupation of coal backers and heavers (porters)! For a weigher the effect would be much the same as for any other worker with coal. The coal would arrive in a collier at Gravesend, be unloaded, conveyed to the coal-exchange and then presumably weighed out to be taken to the salesmen, where it could be checked again for distribution to the customers.Anyone working with coal had the same appearance - all black, their clothes, jackets, shirts and neckerchiefs, their whiskers, regardless of what colour they were before, and when they perspired in summer the dust stuck to their skin even more firmly)
He had two children from this first marriage, George and John, and was 21 years older than Mary Ann. Neither of these brothers were of course related to Mary Ann Cope or to the Cope family, so they were 'step-brothers', not 'half-brothers'.
1. George b.1848 who became an 'Engineer electrical' and later is described as an 'Engine Driver Stationary', with the additon of '(cold air storer)' in 1911. (This doesn't refer to trains but to an engine which creates the correct fuel to air mixture by means of a needle valve, a process still used in many different types of engines.) At 53 and at 63 George was said to be married on both the 1901 and 1911 censuses but no wife has been found nor evidence for a marriage.
2.John junr b.1853 a Thames Waterman and later a 'Lighterman'. He married in the Dec Q 1908 at the age of 55 to an Elizabeth Sedden who was 20 years younger than him. As far as is known they had no children.
A Waterman is described in Mayhew's 'London', They were not allowed to work without having served a seven-year apprenticeship and then 'taken up his freedom at Watermman's Hall' They sometimes grumbled at this law being ignored or at the new London Bridge which was so much easier to navigate. The older one with its spreading piers (and houses all the way across) demolished and replaced about 1831 meant it had formerly taken an expert to shoot through to get clear of the arches, so 'people wouldn't trust themselves to any but watermen' The lightermen - using a 'lighter', a barge used for carrying heavy goods, were a little different as they only plied goods, not passengers.If a lighterman was drunk for example he 'would hardly be trusted twice!'
An apprenticeship record found on FindMyPast associates Harry as an apprentice Waterman and Lighterman with John Lack junr . This was in 1877 when the new Lack family were somewhere between Stoney St in Southwark in 1871 (before the marriage), and 52 Paradise St in 1881. As the apprentice, referred to as 'Henry George Cope' of course, was coming up to 17 and this John Lack was indeed a Waterman, identified as such and as the son of John senr when living with him only months before the marriage to Mary Ann, there are too many points of coincidence - and no other competing 'Henry George Cope' not to identify the subject of this record with Harry. It could only have been a short-lived apprenticeship if this is correct, for reasons described more fully in Harry's story on coffee3.
Mary Ann had two more children with John. They had moved to Chelsea by 1873 when their first child (and John's 3rd), Frederick Lack was born, but their second (John's 4th), Charles Lack, was born on 10 May 1877 at 52 Paradise St, back in Lambeth but on the other side of Waterloo Station and in the area near Lambeth Palace. In 1881 for just that census Leonard, at 17, was listed as 'Lack' rather than 'Goodson', but he reverted to Goodson afterwards, perhaps on his marriage (details above under 'Goodson'). The two Lack brothers 'Fredrick' Lack, 8, and Charles Lack, 4 were of course Leonard's half-brothers. The other two, George and John were only step-brothers. George, then 42, was not with them at that time but was living with them by 1891 when they had moved into the Lydia Buildings in Cornwall Rd.
5. Frederick Lack, b. Chelsea 1873; m. Sarah Elizabeth Powell Dec Q 1894 in St Saviour's; was an electrotype apprentice in 1901, then newspaper stereotyper in 1911 when they were living at 54 Peabody Cottages, Herne Hill. They had 4 children, 3 being still alive in 1911, in with five rooms (including the kitchen) quite a reasonable sized residence for the area.
Emily Lack b. 1897 in Walworth
ii. Leonard Lack b. 1899 in Walworth
iii. Ruth E.Lack b. East Ham, Essex (not on the 1911 census)
iv. Rose Lack b. 1908 in Leyton, Essex
[*Peabody was an American banker and philanthropist in the mid-19th century who lived in London for a time and was horrified by the living conditions of much of the population there. He pioneered social housing for the less well-off. An interesting aspect of London life - see Wikipedia etc. The first Peabody estate was opened in 1865. One of the Barnes family, George, moved to London from Aylesbury and also lived on the Peabody Estate at Herne Hill some time after 1911 Both may have lived on the same estate for a while, but whether they met or knew of the family connection is not known]
6. Charles Lack b. Lambeth 1877; dock labourer in 1911; m. Mary Goward on Christmas Day 1898 in Hackney;. Two of their 5 children on the 1911 census were born in Leyton, Essex, and the other 3 in Lambeth, Bermondsey and Hackney. Living in Poplar with only 3 rooms, especially as one of these was the kitchen, Charles was obviously not quite so well-situated as his brother.
Cecil Charles Lack b. 1900vi.
George Lack b. 1912
ii. Ellen May Lack b. 1901vii. Albert Lack
iii. Wilfred Norman Lack b. 1904viii. Iris Lack
iv. Ivena Lack b. 1908ix. Walter Alexander Lack
v. Frederick Lack b. 1910 (Dates less than 100 yrs to the present omitted)
In 1881 the Lack family were living at no.52 Paradise St in Lambeth - (no 'Paradise' there though!) It was the other side of Waterloo Station from the coffee shop. By 1891 they were on Cornwall Rd and moved yet again into Southwark. Perhaps they moved even more often - it was common practice in rented accommodation.
Finally in the Jun Q 1909 Mary Ann died in Southwark, her last known address being Flat 11, 33 Mason Street, St George the Martyr Southwark in 1901, surrounded by rather a mixture of her two families, husband, John , John's son George (engine driver stationary), and her own daughter Ellen Goodson as cook, and granddaughter Nellie then aged eight. Nellie may have married a Sydney Morgan in 1915 but most records after 1911 are speculative.
|Coffee shop2 Henry George (1)||