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George and Mary Anne Jackson 4

The name 'Templeton' refers to an area between the A381and the A373 west of Tiverton before the two roads meet again at South Molton. 'Temple town' itelf consists of little more than two or three short lanes lined with cottages , each with a garden, and more or less facing the parish church across the green. In mid-century there was a grocer's shop and every other amenity very nearby, taiilor, thatcher, carpenter, mason, blacksmith, shoemaker - and their wives who made clothes for their own families and often for others less skilled.

There is no known record of the move but George, Mary Anne and Albert are listed at Cloggs on the 1851 census. though it adds very few details to the life of the Jacksons at Cloggs. The following remarks are deductions made after studying what is available through the properties and records of the people of the village and of the Chichester family

The Jacksons actually moved to Cloggs Court, perhaps about 1847 when Thomas Payne, who had been paying rent of £12 10s. each half-year till that November, went to live with his son, also Thomas, who was farming 91 acres in Stoodleigh. Thomas sen'r died in the January of 1852 aged 80 and was buried in Templeton, after which Cloggs ceases to appear in the accounts.

From November 1847 James Beedell was paying £7.10s to rent Cloggs, £5 less than Thomas had paid. These amounts were not static. As farms changed hands more or fewer fields might be available so local farmers could take on more acres when doing well, along with more labourers. In 1851 James had moved to a farm at Thelbridge, 5 or 6 miles away, where he is shown on the 1851 census but he continued paying the rent on Cloggs until the 5th of May 1852. after which Cloggs is no longer recorded in the accounts (presumably because George Jackson was not charged rent for it) As James moved out of High and Low Town Livings (for which he was in arrears), Henry Blake moved in and began paying the £65 half yearly rent (rising to £70 in November 1855) right to the end of the book.. It was the largest of the farms owned by the Chichesters in Templeton. The exact location of 'Town Livings' and the old cottage named Cloggs can be found in the PRO in Kew, in the Tithe Commutation Maps.

Why James Beedell paid these bills for Thomas Payne became clear on finding out that Thomas must have been his father-in-law. (James Beedell and Elizabeth Payne appear in the parish records s marrying in Templeton on the 10th February 1826.) Since George Jackson was already living rent-free at Cloggs on May 1st (when he entered all the details in his book) why was any paid at all in 1851? Perhaps there's an answer - or a hint - in Thomas Payne's will?

Beedell 10 yrs Lady Day 1842 £160

This is the 'note' written on the left hand side of the first page of the account book.The right hand page was unmarked (though it's full of notes written many years later by Albert), as George needed a full page spread, beginning with p.3 with the rents and money received on the left side and payments out etc p.4 on the right, the rest following in the same way. James Beedell lived at High and Low Town Living , payng rent of £75 each half year, and on 'Lady Day' 1846 he was in arrears for £29. 16s 2d. which turns out to be a fairly regular occurrence in the years after 1846! In addition, from November 1848 to May 1852, his last appearance in the accounts book, he was also involved with expenses for Cloggs and seems to have been in arrears for that too. The actual amounts can be seen on pp 9-27 of the copies (.pdf files) of the account on the Templeton pages, beginning with page 9, Cloggs rent . (An explanation of what all this means, disbursements etc would be very welcome!) In fact James had already moved to Thelbridge well before 1851, perhaps even in 1842,where he was farming 305 acres with 6 labourers. He appears to have died by 1861 though this hasn't yet been confirmed.

Cloggs Court, Templeton

The cottage,  long, low, whitewashed and thatched is still there, rather splendidly ‘restored’ by an architect.. It wouldn't have looked like this in 1851! The 'Court' part of the name reflects that it was said to be the oldest house in the village, used since the middle ages as a court for Quarter Sessions if needed, having a large room at one end added for that purpose, but was seldom used by the 19th century. As George and Mary Anne were still at ‘Cloggs Court,’ according to the 1861 Census, it is reasonable to assume that they remained there until after November 1864 when George made his last entries in the accounts book.

R.Bovett, in his “Historical Notes on Devon Schools” of 1989 quotes the Abstract of Education Returns of 1833 which states that a daily school of ten pupils commenced in 1827, supported by the Rector and the Curate. He assumes that Mrs Cottrell “taught the few children in the cottage where she lived." Possibly ten children could be fitted into the living room of the very small cottage in Mill Village - all sitting on the floor round her - but it does seem rather unlikely, and even less likely that she'd have a couple of benches to seat all of them, plus a quite large blackboard which would be rather essential in the absence of any books, and with the children ranging in age from about 5 to 10. There were many more eligible children than the ten mentioned but it was difficult in those days, as early school records show, to persuade families to send their children, they were so much need at home for many chores in the absence of our 'mod cons,' or out in the fields, if only for bird-scaring. Some children would not attend at all and others would be withdrawn at busy times like the harvest.

A count of the children in 1851 reveals 17 children listed as 'scholars' ranging in age from 5 to 13.
There were 12 listed as 'at home' ranging in age from 5 to 11 (excluding older children who would usually have left). There were few rules and attendance obviously didn't begin on any specific date or birthday (if they knew when that was!) - it was all still optional. Also 'scholar' might sometimes mean in reality the same as 'at home'.

There is no direct evidence to place the school here at Cloggs either before or when George and Mary Anne were living there. Mary Cottrell is simply named as the 'schoolmistress' in 1851 and 1861 but it seems very likely that the room on the right, the old 'court' would have been used for the school from the time Mary and her daughter took it on, being at the centre of the village and not at such a distance as Mill Village. Mary Anne's daughter Emma who went to Sussex and married in 1854, had become a teacher in Sussex by 1861; she could have been a 'monitor' like Martha Cottrell - in charge of the younger children in Templeton in the 1840s. By 1871, the year after the new Education Act which obliged parents to send all children of eligible age to school, an Elizabeth Sargent, 57, from Salcombe had taken over, and Cloggs is listed in the column showing properties as 'Cloggs (school)'.

Although Cloggs is not listed as such in 1881, the schoolmistress inan Anna Drimond, 21, born in Exeter has her address as '2 'Payne's Cottages' but perhaps this was still Cloggs and recalled the last rental before 1851 by Thomas Payne. Lots of the cottages were named after people who had probably lived there for a very long time. e.g.:
'Rose Cottage' was almost certainly 'Rowe's Cottage' originally,
Joseph Mogford the carpenter who also lived in a 'Cott. in Town Village' from 1841 is remembered with 'Mogford Cottage' in 1881.
'Clogg' reappears in 1891 with the schoolmaster, Richard Churchill, 75, born Witheridge.
Many more details of these people and the their houses appear in the pages of the Templeton section of this website.

The 1851 Census

The entry on the 1851 census for Cloggs reveals nothing new about George and Mary Anne, though by this census the details given are more accurate, the ages are accurate, as far as possible (and some people didn't know themselves how old they were) . Their place of birth is now given so George is identified as being born in Upton Grey in Hampshire and Mary Anne as born in the village of Up Nateley, also in Hampshire. Life for them in Devon would have been very familiar, just like home at first. By mid-century things were beginning to change. The railway had come, the newspapers told of what was happening in London and abroad and the local papers were reporting on anything from crime to council meetings to cricket matches - that's if, even if you were literate, you had time and money to indulge in such reading. Albert, now 15 was still at home, and simply listed as the 'steward's son' so perhaps he went around with his father on his various tasks around the village finding out what needed attention, shooting rabbits and helping with the care of the game-birds. A lot of it would involve walking but they would surely both have been able to ride a horse.

It's rather more difficult to speculate on what Emma would be doing around this time. Although not in Templeton at the time of the census she hadn't yet left home. She probably made her own clothes and would presumably have travelled into Tiverton to buy material for this purpose - there wouldn't be anything like that available in the village. In view of her subsequent history however she may have helped out with the school in Templeton.

At the census time Emma was not in Templeton but away in Yorkshire, as ladysmaid almost certainly for Miss Eliza Chichester, one of the four Chichester legatees. They were visiting Eliza's sister, Lady Mary Barbara (Chichester) Constable who was living at Burton Constable Hall (a 'stately home') just to the north of Hull. There were quite a few of the Chichester family there, a cousin, a nephew and friends, some that the men had known since their schooldays at Stonyhurst, the Catholic college in Lancashire. In general these people led very social lives and travelled around regularly and often. Before the days of trains they went by carriage, visiting relatives or friends. Many of them had been to America, Canada and the West Indies as well as having travelled extensively in Europe. Back in England too they often visited friends and relatives for weeks at a time because of the distance, but at present it is not known how long Emma was aay from home. (More details about the visit itself are included on 'Emma's own page.)

Law and Order

Cloggs 'Court ' refers mainly to the large room attached to what was on the whole a cottage similar in design and shape to the others in the village. (It is very unlikely to have looked as it does in the photo above!) The 'court' had been used rarely over the previous two centuries or more, and then only for petty offences. In 1829 a new Act was passed in Parliament setting up a system for police in London, known as 'Peelers' or 'Bobbies' after Sir Robert Peel, one of the champions of the idea. However it only spread slowly to the towns, and much later to villages, so there was no 'bobby' or 'constable' (now simply meaning an ordinary policeman) in Templeton 1901 (or even now?); It was regarded by the country gentry that, they were the magistrates and 'policing' by the local farmers and yeomen (the ones who had most to lose from local crime) was enough.. The district or county, with regular Quarter Sessions, had taken over.

George Jackson as Land Steward

The first positive evidence of this is the 1841 census when George is identified as 'Steward for Lands'. The evidence in the account book itself occurs on the inside front cover is a simple note - not a proper entry - but the reason why the book has been numbered for the pupose of this study with the odd numbers on the left. It says simply:

Beedell 10 yrs Lady Day 1842 £160

This must be James Beedell who lived at High and Low Town Living , payng rent of £75 each half year. On 'Lady Day' 1846 he was in arrears for £29. 16s 2d. which turns out to be a fairly regular occurrence in the years after 1846! In addition, from November 1848 to May 1852, his last appearance in the accounts book, he was also involved with expenses for Cloggs and seem to have been in arrears for that too. He was entered as 'Berdell' initially in the 1851 FindMyPast transcribed version of the census, the second 'e' of his name being written as a thin line and read as a closed up 'r' and not included in the variations (now fortunately corrected!) He was by then already living at Thelbridge with his wife and seven children The actual amounts can be seen on pp 9-27 of the copies (.pdf files) of the account on the Templeton pages, beginning with page 9, Cloggs rent . (A 'technical' explanation of what all this means, disbursements etc would be very welcome!) In fact James had already moved to Thelbridge by 1851 where he was farming 305 acres with 6 labourers. He appears to have died by 1861 though no record has yet been found - another handwriting problem perhaps.

It was this odd entry which suggests that there was an earlier accounts book, now lost. The number of pages in the existing book suggests another book of the same size would account quite neatly for the years that George had been living in Templeton before 1846, even allowing for Emma having been born in Washfielld (the smaller hamelt next to Templeton) or the recently discovered gamekeepers' records which showed him as a gamekeeper in Washfield. (See Jackson2.) He is unambiguously identified in Templeton as the Steward in all three censuses, 1841-1861, though the 'nursery' shown and listed on the Tithe Commutation documents (dated about 1840) indicates that he was still also in charge of young game-birds. The account book itself was obviously only needed intensively twice a year, though he must have been called out many times in between to arrange for repairs by the appropriate tradesmen (including one or two firms still recently operating!). Other tasks like the gathering of bark would depend on the season.

Emma left home soon after 1851 and by the 5th of September 1855 was married at Slindon in Sussex. to George Mason, gardener at Burton Park several miles. further north on the other side of the South Downs.

Albert left home in 1854, joining the army in Tiverton on 15th of August 1854, to go and fight in the Crimean War

The account book ends on November 2nd 1864, after which George and Mary Ann moved to Sussex to be near their daughter Emma. The book itself was packed up with all their other belongings and went with them. It wasn't quite the 'end' of the book for in later years when living in Woking, Albert used the empty spaces in it to make note of his own transactions (though, to put it mildly, in not so orderly a manner!) in operating a 'taxi' service for officers from the barracks and others..

1- Intro
2 - Washfield
3- Sth Combe

5 - Sussex